Hybridization

source : wn.com

## Hybridization-

* Mixing of atomic orbitals of nearly equal energy and to form new orbitals of equal energy is called hybridization. The new orbitals are known as hybrid orbitals.*

## Characteristic of hybridization :

*Hybridization of atomic orbitals take place only.**Atomic orbitals which take part in hybridization may be fulfilled, half filled or vacant.**Hybrid orbitals always form sigma bond.**Hybrid orbitals have definite shape and geometry.*

## Types of hybridization :

## sp hybridization :

*In this hybridization one s & one p orbital are mixed together and two hybrid orbitals of equal energy are formed. These are called sp hybrid orbital and this process is called sp hybridization.*

## Properties of sp Hybrid orbital :

*Two sp-hybrid orbitals are equivalent in energy.**Geometry is linear and angle is 180*^{0}.*sp-hybrid orbital is stronger than pure s and p orbitals.**sp -hybrid orbital has two lobes.*

**Example: C _{2}H_{2} , CO_{2} , BeCl_{2} , N_{2}O etc.**

6C : 1s^{2},2s^{2},2p^{2}

source :Assignment help

Geometry is linear and angle is 180^{0}.

source : Adi chemistry.com

## Formation of BeCl_{2} molecule :

Central atom in BeCl_{2} is Be.

4Be : 1s^{2}, 2s^{2}

17Cl : 1s^{2},2s^{2},2p^{6},3s^{2},3p^{5}

source : SlideShare

*One s and one p orbital of Be hybridization to form two sp hybrid orbitals. Each hybrid orbital overlaps with singly filled p-orbital of chlorine. So two sigma bonds are formed.Geometry of molecule is linear and bond angle is 180 ^{0}.*

## sp^{2} hybridization :

*In this hybridization one s, two p orbitals are mixed together and three hybrid orbitals of equal energy are formed. These are called sp ^{2} hybrid orbital and this process is called sp^{2} hybridization.*

## Properties of sp^{2} hybrid orbitals :

*All three hybrid orbitals are equivalent in shape and energy.**Three hybrid orbitals lie in the same plane and are directed towards three corners of an equilateral triangle.**Bond angle is 120*^{0}.

### Example: BF_{3}

*In BF _{3} molecule central atom is B.*

*5B = 1s ^{2},2s^{2},2p^{1}*

source : Meritnation

* One s and two p-orbitals of Boron atom hybridize to form three sp ^{2} hybrid orbitals. These hybrid orbitals are singly occupied and directed towards three corners of an equilateral triangle.*

* Each hybrid orbital overlaps with singly filled 2pz orbital of F- atom. So three sigma bonds are formed. Geometry of molecule is trigonal or triangular planar and bond angle is 120 ^{0}.*

source : Slideplayer.com