source : khan academy.org
1) The compounds having the formula R-O-R or R-O-R’ are called ether. The two alkyl groups may be same or different.
2) Ether is obtained by replacing the hydrogen atom of hydrocarbon by the alkoxy group.
3) Their IUPAC name is alkoxy alkane.
4) Out of the two alkyl groups attached to the two sides of the -O-, the group which is bigger or larger than the other is named as hydrocarbon
5) Their general formula is CnH2n+2O
i) Those compounds in which -CHO group is present are called aldehyde.
ii) Aldehyde group is generally attached to one end of the carbon chain.
iii) Their general formula is CnH2nO
iv) Their suffix is ‘al’
v) Their I.U.P.A.C. name is Alkane -e +al = Alkanal
1) The compounds having the formula or are called ketone.
2) Their general formula is CnH2nO
3) Their suffix is ‘one’
4) Their I.U.P.A.C name is written Alkane – e+ one= Alkanone.
When two ketonic groups are present in the compound, then suffix ‘dione’ is used .