Hybridization

source :Chemistry Stack Exchange

## Sp^{3}d^{3} hybridization :

* The mixing of one s, three p and three d- atomic orbitals to form seven equivalent sp ^{3}d^{3} hybrid orbitals of equal energy. This hybridization is known as sp^{3}d^{3} hybridization.*

## properties :

*Seven sp*^{3}d^{3}hybrid orbitals are directed towards the corners of a pentagonal bipyramid.*These are not equivalent hybrid orbitals because five of them are directed towards the corners of a regular pentagon while the remaining two are directed above and below the plane.**The geometry is pentagonal bipyramidal and bond angle is 72*^{0}and 90^{0}.

## Example : formation of IF_{7}

*In IF _{7} molecule the central atom is I.*

* _{53}I – 1s^{2} ,2s^{2},2p^{6},3s^{2},3p^{6},4s^{2},3d^{10},4p^{6},5s^{2},4d^{10},5p^{5}*

* Seven atomic orbitals (one s, three p and three d orbitals) hybridize to form seven sp ^{3}d^{3} hybrid orbitals. These are singly filled. These hybrid orbitals overlap with singly filled 2pz atomic orbitals of seven F-atoms to form seven I-F sigma bond. Geometry of IF_{7} is pentagonal bipyramidal and bond angle is 72^{0} and 90^{0}.*

* source : www.adichemistry.com*

*Hybridization in Xenon fluorides : *

source : Slideshare

*Geometry of XeF _{2} is linear due to presence of three lone pair of electrons in sp^{3}d hybrid orbitals . Geometry of XeF_{4} is square planar due to presence of two lone pair of electrons in sp^{3}d^{2} hybrid orbitals & XeF_{6} is distorted octahedral because one lone pair of electron is present in sp^{3}d^{3} hybrid orbital.*