Carboxylic acid

Carboxylic acid

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Carboxylic Acid –

1)    Those compounds in which  (carboxyl group) -COOH group  i-e.    group is present are called carboxylic  Acids.

2) On the basis of the number  of carboxylic groups,  acids are of three types . These are

a)  Mono carboxylic Acid

b) Di carboxylic Acid

c) Tri carboxylic Acid

3) The General Formula of mono carboxylic acid is CnH2nO2

4) Their IUPAC name is written as Alkane -e + oic Acid= Alkanoic acid

Dicarboxylic Acid-

The suffix used for dicarboxylic acid is ‘dioic acid’.

Derivatives of Mono Carboxylic Acids-

A) Ester  (RCOOR or RCOOR’)

i) If H-atom of -COOH group of monocarboxylic acid (RCOOH) is replaced by an alkyl group then the compounds  of the formula R-COOR or RCOOR’ are obtained. These compounds are called Esters.

ii) Their general formula is CnH2nO2

iii) Their  suffix is ‘oate’

iv) Their I.U.P.A.C name is written as Alkyl Alkanoate.

Acid amide (or RCONH2)-

1) If -OH group of  -COOH group  of monocarboxylic Acid [ RCOOH ] is replaced by -NH2 group , then the compounds of the formula RCONH2 are obtained. These compds are called acid amides

2) Their suffix is ‘amide’

3) Their IUPAC name is written as Alkane – e+amide =Alkanamide

Acid Anhydride-

1)  When a water molecule is removed from two molecule of monocarboxylic acid (RCOOH), then compound of the formula (RCO)2O  are obtained. These are called Acid Anhydride

2) Their IUPAC name is written as Alkanoic acid – acid+anhydride = Alkanoic anhydride

Acid Halides-

1)  When -OH group  of the -COOH group  of a monocarboxylic Acid [ RCOOH] is replaced by any halogen atom (X=-Cl,-Br, -I), then  compounds  of the formula RCOX  are obtained. These are called acid halides or acyl halides.

2) Their suffix is ‘Oyl halide’.

3) Their IUPAC name is written as  Alkane- e + oyl halide =  Alkanoyl halide.