source : Chemistryland

 Hybridization – sp3

 In this hybridization one s , three p orbital are mixed together and four hybrid orbitals of equal energy are formed. These are called sp3 hybrid orbital and this process is called sp3 hybridization.

Properties of sp3 hybrid orbitals :

  1. All four sp3 hybrid orbitals are equivalent in shape and energy.
  2. The four sp3 hybrid orbitals are directed towards the four corners of regular tetrahedron.
  3. Bond angle is 109028′.
  4. Geometry is tetrahedral.

source : grandinetti.org

Example: CH4, C2H6,H2O,NH3, NH4+,SO4,PO43-

Hybridization in Methane & Ethane –

one s and three p orbitals hybridise to form four equivalent sp3 hybrid orbitals. These are singly filled and directed towards four corners of regular tetrahedron . These four sp3 hybrid orbitals form sigma bond with singly filled s-orbital of H- atom and four sigma bonds are formed. Bond angle is 109028′ and geometry is tetrahedral.


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source: Chemistry-assignment.com

Hybridization in Ammonia –

7N- 1s2,2s2,2p3

 There four sp3 hybrid orbitals of nitrogen atom of  ammonia is formed by the overlapping of three half filled orbitals of  Nitrogen atom with s-orbital of 3 hydrogen atoms. There remains a full-filled sp3 hybrid orbital.

Geometry of  ammonia is pyramidal or distorted tetrahedral  due to presence of lone pair. There is lp-bp and  bp-bp repulsion.


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source : chemistry @ tutorvista.com

Hybridization in water –

8O- 1s2,2s2,2p4

  There are four sp3 hybrid orbitals on oxygen atom . Water  is formed by the overlapping of two half filled sp3 hybrid orbital of oxygen atom and s orbital of  two hydrogen atom. There remain two full filled sp3 hybrid orbital on oxygen atom.

            Geometry of  water  is V-shaped or distorted tetrahedral  due to lp-lp , lp-bp , bp-bp repulsion. The bond angle is 104.50.


source: Chemistry@TutorVista.com

source :SparkNotes