1) Those compounds in which nitrogen of -NO2 group is attached to any alkyl group are called nitro alkane. Their formula is R-NO2.
2) Their IUPAC name is nitro alkane.
CH3- NO2 or H3C-NO2 Nitro methane
CH3-CH2-NO2 Nitro ethane
CH3-CH2-CH2-NO2 1-nitro propane
CH3-CH(NO2)-CH3 2-nitro propane
1) Those compounds in which an alkyl group is attached to the oxygen of -NO2 group are called alkyl nitrite.Their formula is R – O – N = O.
2) Their IUPAC name is alkyl nitrite.
CH3 – O – N =O Methyl nitrite
CH3-CH2 -O – N = O Ethyl nitrite
a) Alkyl halides:
1) The compounds of the formula R-X are called alkyl halides.These are mono halogen derivatives of alkanes.
2) Their IUPAC name is halo alkane.
CH3-Cl Methyl chloride chloro methane
CH3-CH2-Cl Ethyl chloride chloro ethane
CH3-CH2-CH2-Cl n-propyl chloride 1-chloro propane
CH3-CH(Cl)-CH3 Isopropyl chloride 2-chloro propane
When two or more than two hydrogen atoms of an alkane are replaced by halogen atoms, polyhalogen derivatives of alkanes are formed.
CH2Cl2 Methylene dichloride Dichloro methane
CHCl3 chloroform trichloro methane
CCl4 carbon tetrachloride tetra chloro methane
CH2(Cl)- CH2(Cl) Ethylene dichloride 1,2- Dichloro ethane
CH3-CHCl2 Ethylidene chloride 1,1-Dichloro ethane