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A circular path at a definite distance from the nucleus in which electron revolves around the nucleus is called orbit.
The region in three dimensional space around the nucleus where the probability of finding electron is maximum, is called orbital.
Shape of Atomic Orbitals
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It is spherical is shape, in which probability of finding electron is identical in all directions from the nucleus. It has only one orientation . s-orbitals are spherically symmetrical so electron density is not concentrated along any axis. All s-orbitals are spherical (similar) shape but size increases with increase in value of Principal Quantum No.
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The p- orbital is dumb-bell in shape, it consists of two lobes, one on each side of the nucleus. The probability of finding an electron is equal is both the lobes. The p-orbitals have been denoted as px , py & pz depending upon the orientation.
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The five d-orbitals are equivalent in energy ,its shape is like double dumb-bell. The d-orbitals are denoted as dxy, dyz, dzx, dx2-y2 & dz2 , in presence of magnetic field d-orbitals split into two groups such as dxy, dyz, dzx, or t2g & dx2-y2 & dz2 or eg
The seven f-orbitals are equivalent in energy. The orbitals are denoted as
Their shape is very complicated.
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